original source1)

Every amplifier has its own specific signal characteristic depending on the type of the low-pass, the type of the high-pass filter, the type of the op-amps used and so on. The different types of the circuits and components can cause different signal forms and different time delays. This is the main reason why we strictly recommend that all users should exclusively use the same amplifier circuits, in particular, one of our recommended amplifier circuits. Wrong time stamps can considerably confuse our calculations. Finding the reason for false calculations can be very time consuming. We offer several different amplifiers for different antenna types. Our standard amplifier for magnetic field antennas (H-field antennas) is Amplifier PCB 12. These are for example loop antennas or ferrite rod antennas. An amplifier for electric field antennas (E-field antennas) will probably be introduced in the fall of 2013. We will modify the amplifier circuits from time to time to improve its quality for our special application and to reduce the price.

Figure 25: An e-field antenna build with copper plates

Figure 26: An e-field antenna build with a 30cm wire

Figure 27: A signal of a lightning discharge received by an electrical antenna (above) and by a ferrite rod antenna (below)